The value generated by trading. The amount of surplus generated in a market depends on the quantity traded, and who is trading. 

NewHow Fear Turned a Surplus into Scarcity | Planet Money

The most mysterious thing about this shortage of rice: There was more than enough to go around.

What is Economic Surplus

When there is a significant increase in assets over the amount of liabilities a firm holds, it has an economic surplus. This article focuses on the term when it relates to producer and consumer surpluses.

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