• Deprecated function: Optional parameter $path declared before required parameter $arg is implicitly treated as a required parameter in include_once() (line 1439 of /var/www/quickstart.cals.arizona.edu/includes/bootstrap.inc).
  • Deprecated function: http_build_query(): Passing null to parameter #2 ($numeric_prefix) of type string is deprecated in media_oembed_default_callback() (line 64 of /var/www/quickstart.cals.arizona.edu/profiles/ua_quickstart/modules/contrib/media_oembed/plugins/providers/default.inc).

28 | Cost to Bystanders

A negative externality, or external cost, is a cost of a transaction paid by bystanders who were not consulted, and whose interests were not taken into account.