Externalities that affect people’s welfare only by affecting the price of what they are trying to sell are called pecuniary externalities. From a social perspective, pecuniary externalities are not a problem.
The Impact of Big-Box Retailers on Communities, Jobs, Crime, Wages, and More: Research Roundup
This article analyzes data from many studies on the impact of big-box stores.
Year zero in the history of U.S. big-box stores was 1962: In that one year, the first Walmart, Target and Kmart stores opened. While the firms’ origins varied, their common focus was on deep discounts and suburban locations. Shoppers would arrive by car, not foot, so what mattered was highway access, acres of parking and massive scale.